MSU Weed Science - Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Sep 1st, 2015


People in the Lab
Research Publications

Department of Entomology
Michigan State University
Mail: Natural Science Building, 288 Farm Lane
Office: 331 Natural Science Building
East Lansing, MI 48824


Dr. Chris DiFonzo, Field Crops Entomologist

Office: 331 Natural Science Building
Phone: 517-353-5328

B.S. 1987 ~ Biology, Mercyhurst University, Erie, PA
M.S. 1993 ~ Entomology, University of Minnesota
PhD. 1995 ~ Entomology, University of Minnesota
BARD Postdoc 1996 Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel

Expertise: Management of insect pests of corn, soybean, dry beans, small grains, sugarbeets; aphid biology; insect vectors of plant disease; pesticides; agricultural biotechnology; undergraduate education and advising

Fred Springborn
MSU Extension Educator, Montcalm County & Entomology Graduate Student

Office: 211 W. Main St.,  Stanton, MI 48888

B.S. ~ Crop & Soil Sciences,  Michigan State University
M.S. ~ in progress

Expertise: Field crops production, particularly dry beans


Bt / GM Crops

Contributor to: DiFonzo + 8 others. March 2013. Consensus recommendation:
managing western corn rootworm resistance to Bt on the Fringe.  (pdf)

Contributor to, and signatory of: Porter + 21 corn entomologists. March 2012. Public statement submitted by the North Central Coordinating Committee NCCC46 letter submitted to the EPA voicing concern about corn rootworm resistance to Cry3Bb Bt.

DiFonzo, Grafius, Hillger, Lee, and Kells. 2011. Pest Resistance to Pesticides and Genetically Modified Crop Plants: Theory and Management. Pp. 105-122 In Grumet, Hancock, Maredia, and C. Weebadde. Environmental Safety of Genetically Engineered Crops. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI.

Onstad,Mitchell,Hurley,Lundgren,Porter,Krupke,Spencer,DiFonzo,Baute,Hellmich,Buschman,Hutchison, and Tooker. 2011. Seeds of change: corn seed mixtures for resistance management and integrated pest management. J. Econ. Entomol. 104 (2): 343-352. (pdf)

Sappington, Ostlie, DiFonzo, Hibbard, Krupke, Porter, Pueppke, Shields, and Tollefson. 2010. Conducting Public-Sector Research on Commercialized Transgenic Seed: In Search of a Paradigm that Works. GM Crops.  (pdf).

Contributor to, and signatory of: Shields + 23 corn entomologists. Feb 2009. Public statement submitted to EPA voicing concern about technology agreements that prohibit open research with Bt seed.

Soybean aphid

DiFonzo, Jewett, Nagelkirk. 2015. Foliar Fertilization Does Not Reduce Soybean Aphid Populations, Change Plant Nitrogen and Potassium, or Protect Yield from Aphid Feeding, under Non-limiting Nutrient Conditions. Crop, Forage, & Turfgrass Management [DOI: 10.2134/cftm2014.007] (pdf)

Kates, DiFonzo, Wang. 2015. Soybean aphid populations on aphid resistant and susceptible soybean lines growing under potassium deficiency. Crop, Forage, & Turgrass Management [DOI: 10.2134/cftm2014.007]. (pdf)

Hesler, Chiozza, Neal, MacIntosh, Tilmon, Chandrasena, Tinsley, Cianzio, Costamagna, Cullen, DiFonzo, Potter, Ragsdale, Steffey, and Koehler. 2013 . Performance and prospects of Rag genes for management of soybean aphid. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 147(3): 201-216. DOI: 10.1111/eea.12073 (pdf)

Chandrasena, DiFonzo, and Wang. 2012. A multi-year assessment of Japanese beetle defoliation on aphid-resistant and aphid-susceptible soybean lines. Crop Science 52:2351-2357. (pdf)

Schmidt, O'Neal, Anderson, Lagos, Voegtlin,Bailey, Caragea, Cullen, DiFonzo, Elliott, Gratton, Johnson, Krupke, McCornack, O'Neil, Ragsale, Tilmon, and Whitworth. 2012. Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines: A summary of the suction trap network. J. Econ. Entomol. 105(1): 259-271. (pdf)

Chandrasena, DiFonzo, and Byrne. 2011. An aphid-dip bioassay to evaluate susceptibility of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and neonicotinoid insecticides. J. Econ. Entomo. 104(4): 1357-1363. (pdf)

Bruulsema, DiFonzo, and Gratton. 2010. How potassium nutrition can suppress soybean aphids. Better Crops 94(2): 11-13.  (pdf)

Johnson, ONeal, Ragsdale, DiFonzo, Swinton, Dixon, B.D. Potter, Hodgson, and Costamagna. 2009. Probability of cost-effective management of soybean aphid in North America. J. Econ. Entomol.102(6):2101-2108. (pdf)

Gardiner, Landis, Gratton, Schmidt, ONeal, Mueller, Chacon, Heimpel, and DiFonzo. 2009. Landscape composition mediates exotic and native coccinellid community structure. Diversity Distrib. 15:554-564. (pdf)

Gardiner, Landis, Gratton, DiFonzo, ONeal, Chacon, Wayo, Schmidt, Mueller, and Heimpel. 2009. Landscape diversity enhances biological control of an introduced crop pest in the north-central USA. Ecological Applications 19:143-154. (pdf)

DiFonzo. 2009. Tiny Terrors: the Soybean Aphid. Am. Entomologist 55(1):16-19. (pdf)

Olson, Badibanga, and DiFonzo. 2008. Farmers Awareness and Use of IPM for Soybean Aphid Control: Report of Survey Results for the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 Crop Years. Staff Paper 378.776 D34 S73 08-12, Dept. of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota. (pdf)

DiFonzo and Agle. 2008. Soybean aphid development on, and BCMV transmission to, Otebo dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. Crop Management. doi:10.1094/CM-2008-0916-01-RS. (pdf)

Mensah, DiFonzo, and Wang. 2008. Inheritance of Soybean Aphid Resistance in PI 567541B and PI 567598B. Crop Sci. 48:1759-1763. (pdf)

Radcliffe, Ragsdale, Suranyi, DiFonzo and Hladilek. 2008. Aphid Alert: How it came to be, what it achieved, and why it proved unsustainable. Pp 227-241 In: Area Wide Pest Management: Theory and Implementation, Koul, Cuperus and Elliott (eds.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. (pdf)

Walter and DiFonzo. 2007. Soil potassium deficiency affects soybean phloem nitrogen and soybean aphid populations. Environ. Entomol. 36(1):26-33. (pdf)

Ragsdale, McCornack, Venette, Potter, MacRae, Hodgson, ONeal, Johnson, ONeil, DiFonzo, Hunt, Glogoza, and Cullen. 2007. Economic threshold for soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Econ. Entomol. 100:1258-1267. (pdf)

Hodgson, McCornack, Koch, Ragsdale, Johnson, ONeal, Kraiss, Cullen, DiFonzo, and Behnken. 2007. Field validation of speed scouting for soybean aphid. Crop Management (online) doi:10.1094/CM-2007-0511-01-RS. (pdf)

Costamagna, Landis, and DiFonzo. 2007. Suppression of soybean aphid by generalist predators results in a trophic cascade in soybeans. Ecol. Applications.17(2): 441-451. (pdf)

Song, Swinton, DiFonzo, ONeal and Ragsdale. 2006. Profitability analysis of soybean aphid control treatments in three northcentral states. MSU Dept of Agricultural Economics, Staff Paper 2006-24. (pdf)

Mensah, DiFonzo, Nelson and Wang. 2005. Resistance to soybean aphid in early maturing soybean germplasm. Crop Science 45:2228-2233. (pdf)

Fox, Landis, Cardoso, and DiFonzo. 2005. Impact of predation on establishment of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura in soybean, Glycine max L. Biocontrol 50:545-563. (pdf)

Fox, Landis, Cardoso, and DiFonzo. 2004. Predators suppress Aphis glycines Matsumura population growth in soybeans. Environ. Entomol. 33(3):608-618. (pdf)

Western bean cutworm

DiFonzo, Chludzinski, Jewett, Springborn. 2015. Impact of Western Bean Cutworm Infestation and Insecticide Treatments on Damage and Marketable Yield of Michigan Dry Beans.  J. Econ. Entomol. 1-9 (2015); DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov037.

Michel, Krupke, Baute and DiFonzo. 2010. Ecology and management of the western bean cutworm in corn and dry beans. J. Integ. Pest Mngmt. 1(1). (pdf)

DiFonzo and Hammond. 2008. Range expansion of western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Noctuidae), into Michigan and Ohio. Crop Management. doi:10.1094/CM-2008-0519-01-BR. (pdf)

Jewett, Chomas, Kells, and DiFonzo. 2008. Corn (Zea mays) response to mesotrione as affected by soil insecticide product, application method, and rate. Crop Management. doi: 10.1094/CM-2008-1103-02-RS. (pdf)

Renkema, Nyrop, DiFonzo Sears and Schaafsma. 2006. Control Decision Rule for European Chafer Larvae in Field Corn. J. Econ. Ent. 99(1):76-84. (pdf)

ONeal, Landis, Miller and DiFonzo. 2004. Corn phenology influences Diabrotica virgifera virgifera emigration and visitation to soybean in laboratory assays. Environ. Entomol. 33(1):35-44. (pdf)

Onstad, Crowder, Isard, Levine, Spencer, ONeal, Ratcliffe, Gray, Bledsoe, DiFonzo, and Eisley. 2003. Does landscape diversity slow the spread of rotation resistant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)? Environ. Entomol. 32(5):992-1001. (pdf)

ONeal, DiFonzo, and Landis. 2002. Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on corn and soybean leaves affected by corn phenology. Environ. Entomol. 31:285-292. (pdf)

ONeal, DiFonzo, Landis, and Meek. 2002. Monitoring Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Leconte) in Michigan soybean fields and subsequent adult emergence in rotated and continuous cornfields. Great Lakes Entomol. 35:173-181. (pdf)

Winter Cutworm

DiFonzo and Russell. 2010. Noctua pronuba (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): An outbreak in emails. Journal of IPM (pdf)

Other insects

Harder, Sprague, DiFonzo, Renner, Ott and Johnson. 2007. Influence of stem-boring insects on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) control in soybean with glyphosate. Weed Tech. 21:241-248. (pdf)


Zhang, Zhang, Yang, Wang, Liu , Cuihua, DiFonzo, and Mensah. 2012. Genes and SNP markers for aphid resistant genes from soybean lines PI5675441B, PI567543C, and PI567598B. 

Wang, Mensah, DiFonzo, Zhang, Liu, and Yang. 2009. Markers for aphid resistant germplasm in soybean plants.

Wang, Mensah, and DiFonzo. 2006. Methods on conferring soybean aphid resistance in soybean.

Chludzinski and DiFonzo. 2012. Biology of western bean cutworm in Michigan dry beans. ESA National Meeting, Knoxville, TN. (first place, graduate student 10-minute talk session)

Weebadde, Maredia, Grumet, Hancock, Hollingworth, DiFonzo and Kells. 2012. Building biosafety regulatory capacity in developing countries: programs and experiences of Michigan State University. 12th International Symposium on Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms. St. Louis, MO.

Chludzinski, Springborn and DiFonzo. 2012. Impact of western bean cutworm on Michigan dry bean production: An industry survey. Great Lakes Expo, Grand Rapids, MI and Bean & Sugar Beet Symposium, Saginaw, MI.

Springborn, DiFonzo and Chludzinski. 2012. Western bean cutworm biology and management. Great Lakes Expo, Grand Rapids, MI.

Springborn, Chludzinski and DiFonzo. 2011. Great Lakes Expo, Grand Rapids, MI.
1. Biology of western bean cutworm in corn.
2. Biology of western bean cutworm in dry beans.

Bateman, DiFonzo and Vandervoort. 2011. The undying legacy of DDT and metabolites on MSU's campus. University Research and Arts Forum, East Lansing, MI.

Chludzinski and DiFonzo. 2010. Biology of western bean cutworm in Michigan dry beans. ESA National Meeting, San Diego, CA.

Kates and DiFonzo. 2010. Comparison of ecosystem services provided by natural enemies in aphid-susceptible and aphid-resistant soybeans (Glycine max). ESA National Meeting, San Diego, CA.

Smith, Schaafsma and DiFonzo. 2010. The pheonology of western bean cutworm on conventional and transgenic corn in the Great Lakes region. Entomological Society of Ontario, Grand Bend, ON, CA